This section of the resource will explore the issue of values in school. We can look on this issue from different perspectives. We can try to identify  the important values in a school for instance freedom, respect, trust, responsibility, courage, honesty, growth through learning, openness, dialogue, participation, diversity, credibility, solidarity or we can look also on process of creating them.

Questions for reflection in trelation to Values

  1. Has your school community ever defined what are its main values? If yes, what is the process behind creation of the values? When do youdo it?
  2. Who participates in the process of values creation in school? Does the whole school community take part in this activity?
  3. What is the level of understanding of the values by the school community?
  4. How to implement the values in the day by day work of the school community?
  5. What happens when you talk about values in the class….?
  6. How do you introduce values in a class?

Definition of values

There is a number of various definitions for values. However usually it is something “good” based on its nature like beauty, truth, honesty, love or loyalty. Also it can be understood as a personal or social preference. Beck defines the values as something balanced with based on gthe oodness of human life. According to Kluckhohn, values are the beliefs which we know are important and that have significant meaning for us as human beings. They can be implicit or explicit , individual or group[1]. Fullan argues that values ​​affect what we do, and the way we do it. Therefore they are a source of basic goals and activities, giving a clear sense of purpose and direction in action[2]. We can also define values ​​as "principles, basic beliefs, ideals, norms and attitudes that act as general guidelines for behaviour or as reference points for decision-making process and evaluation of beliefs and actions" (Halstead and Taylor)[3].

Values in school

The school may be seen as a place that takes the values ​​that are present in society and transfers them during the process of education, teaching and learning. The students, teachers and parents bring to school values, which are present in society groups to which they belong. However a school may also challenge the values of a community e.g. racism, sexism, homophobia. The school is a place where school values are combined awith nd/or opposed to what is brought from other groups.

The values ​​are embedded in the school structures, management processes, politics, language and all relationships.

The education process influences a student to achieve the most beneficial changes. The human attitudes that are created by education, are formed during the learning process, which means that they are relatively stable and deep and not superficial and fleeting. The longer  and deeper these changes are, the greater is the value of his education. We can therefore assume that the experience gained in the initial stage of "learning" will affect the future of the student. Thus the likelihood of values and attitudes obtained  during adolescence impacts further decisions and choices, because learning is a process of getting the experiences that lead to permanent changes in behaviour.

Sometimes the values in a school are not fully disclosed and expressed. They may also be improperly communicated in action. They may be hidden in everyday excess of responsibilities, lack of time and a willingness to reflect. Even if the school fosters a coherent system of values, it does not stop there The ongoing debate becomes a must.

Why it is important ? Why to talk about values in schools?

  1. What children learn today is later reflected in society.
  2. The creation of pupils' values relates to the relationships between leaders- teachers - students - parents. How much this does happen does depend on the teachers, parents, school organisation, the organisation of space in the school, dialogue, debate in which the students participate .
  3. Today's young people may be greatly influenced and affected by negative values such as violence, cheating, bribing, disrespect to others and society and unethical practices in the society.
  4. Young people must therefore be guided to inculcate tolerance, peace, respect, caring and honesty at school and college levels.
  5. Institutions should help students to build their character.




1. Finland's education succes CNN report – What impacts on the creation of pupils values related to relationship between leaders - teachers - students - parents. How much does it depend on the leaders, teachers, parents, school organisation, the organisation of space in the school, dialogue, debate in which the students participate in school.

  1. Final Report For AUSTRALIAN GOVERNMENT Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations Project to Test and Measure the Impact of Values Education on Student Effects and School Ambience


  1. Ken Robinson : Do schools kill creativity? Sir Ken Robinson makes an entertaining and profoundly moving case for creating an education system that nurtures (rather than undermines) creativity.
  2. Peter Moss: When we should start preparing people to live in a democratic society? In kindergarten? In the nursery? At school?\
  3. Peter Moss -  What is a "good school"? Question deeply political [Co to jest “dobra szkoła”? Pytanie głęboko polityczne] and Kathleen Lynch - Educating for a just society [Edukowanie dla sprawiedliwego społeczeństwa]; lecture in English with Polish translation 
  4. Adam Steinmetz: Building cooperation between the school and the local community: the citizens or cyber persecutor? [Budowanie współpracy miedzy szkołą a wspólnotą lokalną: obywatele czy cyber prześladowcy?]; lecture in English with Polish translation  
  5. Marzanna Pogorzelska: Anti-discrimination education as a way to school student activity, respect for social norms and individualization of educational [Edukacja antydyskryminacyjna jako sposób na uczniowską aktywność, respektowanie norm społecznych i indywidualizację oddziaływań wychowawczych]; lecture in Polish  
  6. Witold Kołodziejczyk: From the education to instruct in the direction of the education of enabling [Od edukacji pouczania w kierunku edukacji umożliwiania.]; lecture in Polish   
  7. Katarzyna Salamon-Bobińska, Stanisław Bobula, Norbert Karaszewski, Jerzy Rządzki: The curriculum behavior as a support system for students manifested by difficulties in behavior and reduced motivation to learn [Program nauki zachowania jako systemowe wsparcie dla uczniów przejawiających trudności w zachowaniu i obniżonej motywacji do nauki] lecture in Polish 
  8. Katarzyna Gawlicz: Democracy in early childhood education - conditions, possibilities, solutions [Demokracja we wczesnej edukacji – warunki, możliwości, rozwiązania]; lecture in Polish


  1. Why I Hate School But Love Education 

  2. A child’s futur is worth every sacrifice 

  3. World Best Motivational Videos for Students


  1. Aspin D.N., Values, beliefs and attitudes in education: The nature of values and their place and promotion in schools, [in:] M. Leicester, C. Modgil, S. Modgil (red.), Institutions issues, pupils, schools and teacher education, Falmer Press, New York 2005, p. 197–219.
  2. Dorczak R., Mazurkiewicz G., Values based educational leadership, [in:] Edulearn 15 Proceedings, Barcelona 2015, p. 7981–7986.
  3. Freire, P. (2001) Pedagogy of Freedom. Ethics, Democracy, and Civic Courage, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Lanham
  4. J.M. Halstead, M.J. Taylor (red.), Values in education and education in values, The Falmer Press, Taylor & Francis Inc., London–Washington, D.C. 1996.
  5. Halstead J.M., Taylor M.J., Learning and teaching about values: A review of recent research, „Cambridge Journal of Education” 2000, nr 30 (2), p. 169–203.
  6. Haydon G., Values in education, Continuum, London 2007.
  7. Harris M., Johnston M.A., Values-based leadership: At the heart of sustaining school reform and improvement, [in:] S.G. Huber (red.), School leadership – international perspectives, Springer, Dordrecht–Heidelberg–London–New York 2010, p. 145–160.
  8. Kouzes J.M., Posner B.Z., Przywództwo i jego wyzwania, Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego, Kraków 2010.
  9. Łuczyński J., Zarządzanie edukacyjne a wychowanie uczniów w szkole, Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego, Kraków 2011.
  10. Mazurkiewicz G., Przywództwo edukacyjne. Odpowiedzialne zarządzanie edukacją wobec wyzwań współczesności, Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego, Kraków 2011. Michałowska D.A., Neoliberalizm i jego (nie)etyczne implikacje edukacyjne, Wydawnictwo Naukowe Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza, Poznań 2013.
  11. Michałowska D.A., Wartości w świecie edukacji na początku XXI wieku, Wydawnictwo Naukowe Wydziału Nauk Społecznych Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza, Poznań 2013.
  12. Ruciński S.,Wychowanie jako wprowadzanie w życie wartościowe, Wydawnictwa Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego, Warszawa 1998.
  13. Tischner J., Myślenie według wartości, Znak, Kraków 2002.
  14. Ulatowska, R. (2015) Wartości w przywództwie edukacyjnym w: Przywództwo edukacyjne. Próba zmiany.
  15. Zachrisson E., Johansson O., Educational leadership for democracy and social justice, [in:] S.G. Huber (red.), School leadership – international perspectives, Springer, Dordrecht– Heidelberg–London–New York 2010, p. 39–56.


Values-based Education

Values-based Education is an approach to teaching that works with values. It creates a strong learning environment that enhances academic attainment, and develops students' social and relationship skills that last throughout their lives.

The positive learning environment is achieved through the positive values modelled by staff throughout the school. It quickly liberates teachers and students from the stress of confrontational relationships, which frees up substantial teaching and learning time.

It also provides social capacity to students, equipping them with social and relationship skills, intelligences and attitudes to succeed at school and throughout their lives.


[1] Za: G. Haydon, Values in education, Continuum, London 2007, s. 8

[2] Za: ibidem, s. 40

[3] J.M. Halstead, M.J. Taylor, Learning and teaching about values: A review of recent research, „Cambridge Journal of Education” 2000, nr 30 (2), s. 175.